トロントの歴史を巡る建物散歩(1) セントローレンス・マーケット

StLaurence_Mkt00

長くトロント市民の集まるマーケットとして親しまれているトロントのセントローレンス・マーケット。2012年のナショナル・ジオグラフィックが選ぶ「Top Market」に選ばれたことで世界的にも注目を集めることになったのですが、その理由の中で「この建物の歴史」に触れている部分がありました。

HISTORYWALK_MapSM

トロントがヨーク(York)と呼ばれていた時代、上のマップで黄色く囲んだ場所が「MARKET BLOCK」と呼ばれた、最初のマーケットがあったエリア。主にヨーク砦でカナダを守る軍人が200名ほど暮らす街で、市場のみならず自治機能、社交場など様々な施設が、徒歩数分のエリアに集中していました。その後トロントにはイギリスなどから多くの人が流入し、1834年〜44年にかけて人口が2万4000人に増えるとともに税収も激増。市は豊かになり、最初の市議会堂を建設することになりました。

StLaurence_Mkt10

これが完成した最初のトロント市議会堂。セントローレンス・マーケットは、フロントストリートを挟んで南棟と北棟に分かれています。冒頭の写真は市場として火曜日〜土曜日まで営業をしている南棟ですが、トロントが誕生した当時の19世紀には、同じ場所にこのような市議会堂が建っていました(地図の赤い丸数字1の場所)。これが後に改築されて、現在のマーケット南棟になったというわけです。

StLaurence_Mkt09

二つの建物の正面入り口を比較してみると分かるのですが、正面の壁の白っぽいレンガで囲われたアーチ状の入り口と窓は、1845年に建てられた当時の正面の壁がそのまま保存、使用されているのだそうです。左右の赤い木の扉も同様。重厚な扉は180年間トロントの道行く人々を迎え入れていたのですね。

市庁舎は1845年に完成し、1899年まで約50年間使われていました。当時は1階に警察署(Police Station #1)、地下には牢屋、2階が市庁舎(市議会議事堂)が入っていました。さらに人口が爆発的に増えたことから1899年には現在の「旧市庁舎」に移転し、この市庁舎は市場として全面的に改装が行われ、1904年に完成しました。

StLaurence_Mkt11

これが現在賑わいを見せるセントローレンス・マーケット南棟のはじまりの物語で、セントローレンス・マーケットが北と南の2つの棟に分かれている理由は、ここにあるのだと思われます。ちなみに北棟は現在土曜日のファーマーズ・マーケット、日曜日のアンティーク・マーケットの会場となっています。

実はトロントはかつて、大火と呼ばれる火災を2度経験し、木造建築が主流だった19世紀の建物は壊滅的な打撃を受けました。現在残っている歴史的建造物と呼ばれるものの多くがレンガ造りなのは、火災に強い街づくりが行われた結果です。

日本で今日は、東日本大震災が東北地方で起きてから丸3年を覚える日ですね。ちょうど地球の反対側に位置するトロントですが、同じ日本人としてこの日を記憶し、遠い道のりであると伝えられる復興のために祈ることは大切なことであると考えます。
トロントをクルマで走っていると、ごくまれにナンバープレートに「Je me souviens」という言葉が書かれているのをみかけることがあります。これはケベック州から来るクルマのナンバープレートに書かれているフランス語の標語で、「私は記憶している」という意味なのだそうです。
過去に起きたことを忘れずに記憶する。たとえ見知らぬ人々が住む旅先であっても、そこに暮らす人々の過去に触れることは、新たな出会いの一つの形。すべてが新しいものの中に埋もれて行く現代にあって、過去を伝えようとする人々がトロントにもいるということを展示を通して知るのも、旅の思い出となるはずです。

StLaurence_MktG10

こうしたトロントの始まりの歴史については、セントローレンス・マーケット南棟2階の「Market Gallery」に常設展示が行われています。階段は正面入り口、「HISTORY」というパネルの反対側の赤いドア。階段を上がると、展示スペースにたどり着きます。

2度の大火をくぐり抜け、移転をし建物を改装しながら現在に至る市場の歴史はそのまま、トロントがイギリスの植民地として始まり現代に至るまでのカナダの歴史の証人としてここに立ち続けてきた物語。ナショナル・ジオグラフィックがセントローレンス・マーケットを世界一の市場と名付けたゆえんがあります。

StLaurence_MktPm02

歴史に触れる時間を終えたら、階下のマーケットではぜひ「ピーミール・ベーコンサンド(Peameal bacon on a bun)」を試してみて下さい。このベーコンの起源は1800年代にイギリスで豚肉が手に入りにくかった時期に輸出用として作られたものだという謂れがある、カナダの数少ないオリジナル食品。しかも誕生はトロント(マーケットの近くに工場があって、そこで生産されていた)。豚の肩ロースをキュアードした低脂肪のお肉をグリルで焼くと、その焼きたては風味豊かで、ジューシー。ピーミール・ベーコンをパンに挟んだだけの素朴な味を、ぜひお試しください。

StLaurence_North

現在北棟は土曜日のファーマーズ・マーケット、日曜日のアンティーク・マーケットのみの営業になっていますが、まもなく取り壊されて新しい建物に改築予定。新たな歴史を刻みます。

カナダとトロントがどのように発展してきたのかについてはフォトギャラリーの下に年表としてまとめてみましたので、参考にご覧下さい。

住所:92 Front St E, Toronto, ON M5E 1C3(地図

地下鉄ユニオン駅から徒歩で10分ほどです。

営業時間:

ファーマーズ・マーケット(北棟):土曜日午前5時〜午後3時
アンティーク・マーケット(北棟):午前5時〜午後5時

南棟マーケット(日曜・月曜はお休み):
火曜〜木曜:午前8時〜午後6時
金曜:午前8時〜午後7時
土曜日:午前5時〜午後5時

フォトギャラリーもご覧下さい。

トロントは先日180歳の誕生日を迎え、プリンスエドワード島シャーロットタウンではカナダの連邦結成会議(コンフェデレーション)に道筋をつける「シャーロットタウン会議」開催から数えて150年の節目の年。
特に3年後の2017年は、カナダ建国150周年を記念する年になりますので、カナダ全国をあげてお祝いをする計画が始まっています。

【カナダの植民地時代(1497年〜1776年)】

1497年 最初の探検隊John Cabotがイギリスからアトランティックを探検

1534年 フランスの探検家Jacques Cartierがセントローレンス川を調査

1583年 イギリス人Sir Humphrey Gilbertが、セントジョン及びニューファンドランドを北米初の植民地と宣言する

1603年 フランス人探検家Samuel de Champlainがポート・ロイヤルに入植し、1608にケベック・シティーを設立

1763年 イギリスは北米東岸地帯を制定し、土地の独占的な権利を宣言した

1775年 イギリスの植民地政策に反旗をひるがえして、アメリカは独立革命を起こした

1776年 アメリカ合衆国の独立

【トロント市の誕生(1793年〜1834年)】

1793年 John Graves Simcoeは「Town of York(北はキング、南はフロント、東はジャービス、西はチャーチで囲まれた一帯)」を制定。現在は「Old York」と呼ばれるこの地域、かつては「Market Block」として政治や文化の中心地であった

1803年 マーケット・ブロックの北側(現在のセントローレンス・ホール付近)で土曜市場が始まる

1812年〜1815年 米英戦争勃発

1831年 れんが造りのマーケットがフロントストリートの北側(キングストリートまで)完成

1834年 トロント市制定

1834年 最初の市議会堂はキング&ジャービスの角、れんが造りのマーケット内に市の公的機能を果たすオフィスが置かれた。

1845年 トロント初の市議会堂が完成

1849年 トロントの大火(1904年に再び大火が襲った)により、多くの建物が焼失。マーケット・ブロックが再建された

1850年 トロントの社交場「セントローレンス・ホール」が完成

1851年 セントローレンス・マーケット北棟が完成

【カナダ建国から独立国家となるまで(1867年〜1982年)】

1864年 シャーロットタウン会議が、プリンスエドワード島シャーロットタウンで行われ、カナダの連邦結成(Canadian Confederation)の準備についての話し合いが行われた

1867年 カナダ建国の年、英国は外交権のない自治領カナダ政府を成立させ、オンタリオ州、ケベック州、ノバスコシア州、ニューブランズウィック州が参加。

1870年 マニトバ州が自治領政府に参加

1871年 ブリティッシュ・コロンビア州が参加

1873年 プリンス・エドワード・アイランドが参加

1898年 クロンダイクのゴールドラッシュに伴い、ノースウエスト準州、ユーコン準州が参加

1904年 トロント市庁舎が移転。同じ場所にセントローレンス・マーケット南棟の原型となるマーケットが完成

1905年 カナダ首相 Wilfrid Laurier により、アルバータ州とサスカチュワン州が参加

1926年 イギリスがカナダに外交権を与える

1931年 イギリスはウエストミンスター憲章を制定、カナダは自治権を得て英国と対等な立場となる(実質的な独立)

1982年 イギリスのカナダ法改正、カナダ憲法の成立により、カナダは独立国家となる

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